History of the Eiffel Tower in Paris



It all started when the Journel Officiel launched a competition to study the possibility of erecting an iron tower on the Champ de Mars for the 1889 Universal Exhibition that would be as a monument for the centenary of the French Revolution.

Out of a total of 107 different entries submitted for the competition, it was the project proposal by the entrepreneur and talented engineer Gustave Eiffel that won the competition, which was his overall best achievement in all the buildings and construction work that he designed.
Eiffel Tower La Femme
Incredibly, around 5,300 drawings were produced by 50 designers and engineers in order to come up with the final details for all aspects of the tower, even though it was only meant to be in place for 20 years.

Gustave Eiffel decide to use iron for the construction of the Eiffel Tower, as it is far more resistant than other materials like wood, yet it is reasonably light weight and can be supported with smaller foundations, as the load would not be much greater than that of a standard Paris house.

However there was much controversy and many people did not like the idea of this tower, calling it a monstrosity and much worse, but Gustave Eiffel had lots of ideas of how the tower could be utilised, such as scientific experiments, but it was the science and communications at the Eiffel Tower that really made its mark.

But lets get back to the construction..



Work on the tower began in the January of 1887 and there were over 100 workers that built over 18,000 parts in a workshop, whilst another 100 plus workers put the parts together on site at Champ de Mars.

But of course it all has to start with foundations, and again, starting in the January, it took workers around five months to dig the foundations just using spades, with the rubble being taken away via horse and cart and steam trains.
Eiffel Tower 2nd floor
Eiffel Tower South corner
However, as with many construction sites, things do not always go easily and the two pillars on the River Seine side required air-compressed foundations that utilised corrugated steel caissons that ended up 5 metres under water, yet incredibly, the deepest foundations are only 15 metres underground.

As you know, the Eiffel Tower has four pillars and each of the feet were set into the foundation ditches in concrete in order to support the pillars that are known as truss frames.  But it was assembling the first floor that became a mammoth engineering achievement, as the engineers had to use hydraulic jacks and a scaffolding system with boxes of sand that were used to adjust the slant of the truss frames, so that they could be put on a slant to meet up with the horizontal beams on the first floor.

And even though these do not exist today, now when you visit the Eiffel Tower you can see replicas of the original jacks that are located on the first floor.
Eiffel Tower North West side
Actually building The Eiffel Tower was a bit like putting together an old fashioned Meccano set with everything riveted into place, and when it came to the second floor of the Eiffel Tower, each part that had been manufactured in a workshop was put into position by cranes with impeccable precision, which again was a major innovation of the time.

Then came the third floor, which is where Gustave Eiffel even had an office built for his own experiments and astronomy observations.  And then came the top of the Eiffel tower, which by the end of construction the tower was a height of 312 metres, and this made it the tallest building in the world - that was until the Chrysler Building in New York beat it in 1930!

The carpenters that also worked on each floor done a spectacular job to bring everything together for the safety and pleasure of its visitors, just like the four wooden pavilions that were positioned on the first floor to house the original four Eiffel Tower restaurants.
Eiffel Tower Taureau et Daim
Eiffel Tower South East Side
However, as we quickly mentioned earlier, science was also one of the main points that Gustave Eiffel wanted the tower to be utilised for, and there were numerous different types of science equipment installed in the tower such as barometers, lightning conductors, wind gauges, even a wind tunnel, radio contact, Foucault’s pendulum and much, much more.

When it came to visitors being able to get up and down the tower there is yet another story..

Yes, there was a staircase to the top, which was a total of 1,710 stairs that Gustave Eiffel climbed along with Paris dignitaries, in order to plant the French flag when the tower was inaugurated on 31st March 1889.  And a part of the original staircase is on show for visitors to admire.
Eiffel Tower Trocadero Gardens
But there were also elevators put in place, which again was a remarkable feat of engineering at that time and these hydraulic elevators at the Eiffel Tower were classed as a major technical achievement from the genius and vision of Gustave Eiffel, who left us a legacy that we take for granted today.

And not forgetting the foresight of Gustave Eiffel and communications, which also meant this famous Paris landmark in France never got demolished, and is still the most popular paid tourist attraction in the world.